Venice was an independent state for almost a millennium, but it might note have been. It all hinged on a single battle fought in the Venetian lagoon in 810.
The doge was the elected head of the Venetian Republic. He was elected for life by an arcane process that also included drawing lots.
Venice was a republic from the beginning, but in a time when hereditary power was the norm, why did Venice become a republic and not a monarchy?
Marin Falier was a doge of Venice, but he was beheaded on April 17th, 1355, for having orchestrated a coup against the state he led
Viva il doge – Long live the doge – the writing on the wall celebrating the election of Andrea Gritto as doge in april 1523